In order to create the systemic change required to change the attitudes and behaviours of young people, London Sport worked with 19 schools from across 10 different London boroughs to see if adding one evidence based intervention would have a positive impact on reducing inactivity and increasing activity. London Sport invited primary schools to benefit from one of four initiatives that could provide evidence of the impact they could have on reducing levels of inactivity.
Twenty schools were selected from the list of schools that London Sport had previously supported in their Primary School Support role and were all based in boroughs with high levels of inactivity, deprivation and childhood obesity. London Sport selected four interventions that our research had shown could evidence the positive impact that they could have on reducing inactivity. Stidder, G. Liebmann, S.
PA policy indicators can enhance understanding of the links between policy and population levels of PA. Non-communicable diseases NCDs are the leading cause of death globally, accounting for two out of every three deaths, threatening global sustainable development.
The prevention of cancer and other NCDs is arguably one of the most significant public health challenges of the 21st century. Public policy is critical to create environments conducive to healthy and active ways of living. Key findings of the report include strong evidence that physical activity protects against several cancers and that greater body fatness is a cause of many.
The new framework demonstrates how common policy levers can be applied across these risk factors to make progress in achieving the global NCD targets and support the forthcoming WHO Global Action Plan to promote physical activity. Case studies of implemented physical activity policy actions from around the world will be presented.
Exploring the use of systems mapping in the development and dissemination of the draft WHO Global Action Plan to promote physical activity. These aim to explore and understand the multiple and interacting influences on behaviours, and set them within the context of a complex adaptive system, rather than a set of separate and disconnected issues. Activities: We set out to explore the extent to which systems thinking could help in the development and dissemination of the GAPPA. We developed a number of draft causal loop diagrams CLDs for physical activity.
These set out the multiple and interacting influences on physical activity, including environmental; psychological and social influences. Results and Conclusions: The mapping process provided extremely interesting insights into the draft GAPPA, showed the extent to which it was taking a global whole systems approach, and identified gaps to be filled. Validation of the Sedentary Sphere in children: Does wrist or accelerometer brand matter?
Introduction: Posture classification is vital to sedentary behaviour measurement and central to its definition, though assessing posture using wrist-worn accelerometers is challenging. The Sedentary Sphere allows classification of posture based on arm elevation and has been validated in adults. This study aimed to further validate the Sedentary Sphere method of classifying posture from accelerometers worn on either wrist in children. Percent accuracy for posture estimates from both wrists and accelerometer brands were calculated.
The method is equally valid with data from either wrist and either brand of device and removes the requirement for multiple devices to assess both physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children. Aston K. McCullough, Elroy J. Aguiar, Scott W. Ducharme, Christopher C. Recent studies have used triaxial accelerometer activity counts to distinguish standing time from sitting time. Further research is needed on methods for classifying standing versus sitting using step-based metrics. For each 5-min bout, cadence signals were deconstructed in both the time and frequency domains.
Signal features from the time and frequency domains were modeled as predictors of each respective task using a Decision Tree algorithm CART within a one-versus-all classification paradigm. At the hip, values were—SITR: 0. Innovations in the use of raw accelerometry in epidemiology: A basis for harmonisation of physical activity outcomes across international datasets. Background: To capitalise on the increasing availability of accelerometry data for epidemiological research it is desirable to pool data from multiple surveys worldwide.
This study aimed to establish which physical activity outcomes can be considered equivalent between three research-grade accelerometer brands worn on the dominant and non-dominant wrist. Conclusion: Free-living measures of average dynamic acceleration, and outputs that depend on acceleration magnitude, are higher at the dominant relative to the non-dominant wrist.
Outputs that take into account the distribution of data, e. Cadence was directly observed.
Results: Cadence thresholds for the various indicators that corresponded to moderate and vigorous intensity were, respectively: METs — Be aware of the consequences of cutting your cut-point when analysing sedentary behaviour and physical activity in youth. Children wore an accelerometer at their right hip. Purpose: The U.
The data are being prepared for public release. This presentation will describe how the NHANES accelerometer data are being processed and how they will be made available. Methods: Data are being processed on a protected cloud account provided by Amazon Web Services. Gt3x files were converted to an open source, flexible format for processing.
A system for running data summarization algorithms in parallel using Python, Java, or R code was developed and tested with pilot data from approximately participants and then scaled up.https://otusaxywut.ga
Data quality assessment was performed by examining distributions of selected signal features and summary data. Daily and minute-level data will be provided for download from NCHS, while higher resolution data may require processing within a cloud environment. Physical activity levels in women and men measured by accelerometer.
Introduction: The health benefits of physical activity PA is undisputable. However, surveillance data of population PA patterns assessed objectively is rare. Results: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA averaged The participants spent most of their time in sedentary and light PA; Built environment change and neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage: are neighbourhood differences widening over time, and what are the implications for inequalities in physical activity and health?
Introduction: Reducing health inequality is a goal of many governments and international health authorities. As cities change and grow, a key question is whether changes in their built environments lead to a widening of inequalities in physical activity leisure and transport-related and health. This longitudinal study tracks built environment change over time — in a fast-growing high-income city Brisbane, Australia and examines whether change differs by neighbourhood disadvantage and the implications for inequalities in physical activity and health.
The built environment is measured using residential density, land-use mix, street connectivity, street lights, bike paths, and parks. Neighbourhood disadvantage is measured using a Census-based index. Results: Built environment increases were observed for 3- and 4-way intersections, residential density, street lights, and bike paths, whereas land-use mix decreased. Disadvantaged neighbourhoods had a higher number of 4-way intersections and street lights, they were more residentially dense, had more metres of bike path, and had a more diverse land-use mix. Advantaged neighbourhoods had more 3-way intersections and greater park coverage.
The rate of built environment change differed by neighbourhood disadvantage for most of the measures. Conclusion: The magnitude and direction of built environment change showed a complex pattern which suggested that at a minimum, inequalities in physical activity and health will be sustained in the future. Built environmental correlates of utilitarian walking among older adults: Does the type of activity places matter?
Introduction: Evidence on environmental determinants of utilitarian walking stresses the necessity to distinguish between commuting and errand. Both the location and the type of activity are critical to understand travel modes. This study examines the influence of the type of activity conducted at a given location on walking, and the interaction effect with the built environment and distance to the place of residence. Information related to demographics, health status and regular activity locations were collected using standard questionnaires and the VERITAS survey.
Associations between type of activity personal, shop, free time, visit, meal, appointment , environmental characteristics density of amenities, diversity, connectivity, public transport frequency , distance, and walking were analysed by generalized estimating equations models with logit link accounting for demographics, neighborhood self-selection, and physical health. Results: The type of activity is a strong correlate of walking among elders. While density and diversity of amenities were associated with walking, evidence of interactions with the type of activity is less clear. The barrier effect of distance on walking strongly differ by type of activity.
Introduction: Attending university often involves moving from a family home environment to a more independent living and is accompanied by unhealthy behaviour changes such as decreasing physical activity PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that the university environment and characteristics have on student PA behaviour. Two-step cluster analysis identified any PA behavioural patterns, while binary logistic regressions examined the influence of the university environment on these patterns.
Age, sex, household income, and travel time to university were all controlled for in the analysis. Results: Five clusters were identified from the analysis and were given names based on key behaviours: Not Active, Active Commuter, Active in University, Active outside University, and Active Everywhere. Conclusion: Increasing our knowledge of interactions between PA and the environment can aid with the development or adaption of university campuses to create optimum conditions for increasing PA and overall health of students.
Walkability index, land-use-mix, street connectivity, residential density and walking for transportation in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Aim: To create walkability index based in residential density, street connectivity, land-use-mix; and to verify the relationship of these variables with walking for transportation in adults who live in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Walking for transportation was evaluated by IPAQ questionnaire.
Walkability index was elaborated based on residential density, land-use-mix and street connectivity that were obtained on census tract level where people live. We used Kruskal-Wallis and Poisson regression for statistical analysis. Only land-use-mix was associated with walking for transportation. Conclusion: Only land-use-mix was associated with walking for transportation in adults who live in Sao Paulo. It is important to discuss variables that compose the walkability index in megacities. Increasing land-use-mix in other areas of the city favors walking for transportation with benefits for population health.
Investigating the impact of urban regeneration on public health: A real world natural experiment. Introduction: There is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale environmental interventions to help sustain changes in physical activity PA behaviours. The Connswater Community Greenway CCG is an example of a natural experiment, providing an opportunity to evaluate the public health impact of a major urban regeneration project in Belfast, UK.
Methods: A representative random sample of 1, adults from 62 neighbourhoods in Belfast was recruited prior to the CCG regeneration Feb — Jan As part of a broader mixed evaluation, household surveys are being repeated after completion of the CCG in and pre-post assessment of the effects of the CCG on physical activity and health will be conducted. The economic merit of walkable neighbourhoods: A case study in Melbourne, Australia.
Introduction: In Australia, health and economic outcomes of urban developments have not been formally quantified. We address this using a method that could be applied to planned urban developments.
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Methods: Health and economic outcomes were compared between three urban developments in Melbourne, Australia by combining a model estimating the probability of transport walking with a proportional multi-state multi-cohort life table model. Urban developments included a greenfield development, infill development, and a composite of highly walkable areas in Melbourne. Built environment features for each development and data on 16, adults from the Victorian Integrated Survey of Transport and Activity were used to simulate transport walking probabilities, which were then used in the proportional multi-state multi-cohort life table model to quantify health and economic outcomes between pairs of urban developments.
Conclusions: Quantifying health and economic outcomes for different urban developments provides important information of the unassessed consequences of city design. This research demonstrates that more walkable neighbourhoods could significantly contribute to population health and the economy. This presentation will explore the preliminary analyses in terms of: driver perceptions; public support; perceptions of safety; road speeds; number and type of road casualties; and attitudes and levels of walking and cycling.
Data sources for analyses will include routinely collected data e. We also implemented our own Driver and Resident Perceptions survey pre and post implementation in 3 of 6 implementation zones in Edinburgh. Data were collected at varying time points and with varying data collection points. As a result, we will use a number of designs and models to analyse the effects including pre-post, time-series and controlled before-and-after designs.
Preliminary data analyses are planned for April For each of the research questions we will also explore where and when possible and using appropriate techniques how the effects differ between areas and population groups age, gender, and socioeconomic status and the timeframe for different effects. Findings will be used to test, refine and modify the Programme Theory and Logic Model. Choose to Move: Evaluation of a physical activity intervention for older adults delivered at scale across BC, Canada.
We evaluated intervention effectiveness at both organizations. Using implementation and scale up frameworks we collaborated with organizations to adapt CTM delivery to their organizational context. We gathered socio-demographic characteristics at baseline and assessed our primary PA and secondary mobility and social connectedness outcomes at baseline, 3 and 6 months via questionnaire.
We explored the role of delivery organization in participant level outcomes via mixed effects models. Results: On average, PA, and mobility increased, and loneliness decreased from 0 to 3 and 6 months. Social exclusion was decreased at 3, but not 6 months. Despite this, change over time for PA, loneliness and social exclusion was similar between organizations.
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However, at 6 months, increased mobility was only apparent at one organization. Conclusion: The two delivery organizations appear to serve different populations which is valuable for extending reach. Despite differences at baseline, the response to the intervention was similar for many key outcomes among participants at each delivery organization. The effects of a week comprehensive golf training program on functional fitness in older adults. Introduction: Aging is associated with declines in muscular performance, cardiovascular endurance, and balance that can impair the ability to perform activities of daily living.
Multimodal physical activity interventions are effective in attenuating these declines. Golf is a popular recreational activity that contains multiple components which include walking the golf course, bending over to pick up a golf ball, and high-velocity golf swings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a comprehensive golf training program on the functional fitness of older adults.
Methods: Eight, non-golfing older adults Age: Training consisted of complimentary exercises, swing training, and a gradual introduction to golf play.
These improvements can be attributed to the multimodal nature of golf play. However, grip strength did not improve following the golf training program, likely due to the low-load, high-velocity movement pattern of the golf swing. Overall, these results support a comprehensive golf training program as a plausible activity intervention to improve function in older adults. The impact of physical activity and sitting time on mobility disability-free life expectancy.
Introduction: Low physical activity PA and high sitting time ST are risk factors for development of mobility disability. However, their impact on mobility disability-free life expectancy has not been estimated. Mortality was determined by linkage to the National Death Index. Total life expectancy and mobility disability-free life years were estimated using continuous-time multi-state survival models. Results: Life expectancy was higher in high PA women 8. The proportion of remaining years that were mobility disability-free was higher in high PA women Conclusion: ST had a greater impact on total life expectancy than PA, whereas PA had a greater impact on years lived without mobility disability.
Targeting both behaviours will ensure longer and healthier lives for older women. Device-measured and self-reported sedentary behaviour and quality of life: a prospective study of community-dwelling older men. Barbara J. Background: In older adults, structured exercise is associated with better quality of life QoL , but associations with sedentary behaviours SB are less clear.
We investigate how SB total and types are prospectively related to QoL, and whether SES or presence of mobility limitations modify associations.
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Methods: Cohort of men recruited in UK primary care practices. Regression models investigated associations between SB and QoL in men with sufficient data. Interactions with SES and functional limitations were tested. Total SB accelerometer-measured or self-reported did not vary by education or occupation, but men with less education and manual occupation reported more TV and car-based SB, and less computer and reading SB.
Mean QoL was The British Heart Foundation had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Why do older adults start and continue to walk with organised walking groups? Introduction: Older adults are one of the least active groups within the UK, and the Government recommends walking for older adults to meet PA guidelines Department of Health, Group walking also provides shared experiences and social opportunities Killingback, Understanding why older adults start and continue to walk in groups will help promote walking.
The purpose of this qualitative systematic review was to identify why older adults start and continue walking in organised groups. Factors relating to starting, continuing will be determined, including overlap. Inclusion criteria comprised walkers aged 60 plus, attendance at walking groups up to 6 months initiation phase and 6 months plus continuing phase. Thematic synthesis methodology was undertaken.
Seven studies reported initiation and continuing findings, the other seven initiation only. Conclusion: Older adult group walkers worldwide report similar reasons for starting and continuing to walk with groups. Specific factors relating to health status, preferred environment, and older age, may assist with adherence. Introduction: The benefits of physical activity after breast cancer are well recognized, but the majority of survivors are insufficiently active. Methods: We recruited and randomised 83 inactive, postmenopausal women who had finished primary treatment for stage I-III breast cancer to an intervention or control group.
Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to examine between-group differences post-intervention. Whether such wearable technology-based interventions can create sustainable behavioural change should be assessed in future research. A large-scale, multi-centre, pragmatic randomised control trial to prevent mobility-related disability in older adults. Successful recruitment strategies and findings from the baseline data. During old age, there is a population-wide transition towards frailty and increased demand for health and social care services.
The US-based LIFE Study showed that improving fitness and leg muscle strength can prevent this transition to mobility-related disability in moderately frail older people. Aims: To adapt the LIFE intervention to a large, pragmatic UK-based multi-site trial to prevent progression to mobility-related disability in moderately frail older adults. Methods: Using behaviour change theory and consultation with service users, service providers and experts in the field, we developed a logic model, identified targets for change and behaviour change strategies.
Recruitment strategies and challenges and participant baseline profiles will be presented. Twenty-seven REACT intervention groups are receiving twice-weekly aerobic, muscle-strengthening, flexibility and balance group exercise sessions for 12 weeks , followed by weekly sessions for 9 months. REACT is delivered by qualified exercise professionals in voluntary sector and local authority settings.
Conclusions: This first international presentation of REACT baseline findings describes a complex, evidence-based intervention that has successfully engaged a hard to recruit group through targeted approaches that could be applied to other community-based physical activity programmes. The central role of local partners in REACT delivery has embedded skills in communities and built in future sustainability. Acute improvements in mathematics performance following randomisation to the Daily Mile versus sedentary controls in primary school children.
Case study: Using evidenced based interventions to reduce levels of inactivity in London schools
School based interventions assessing the acute impact of physical activity PA on AP and cognition suggest variable effects. Conclusion: TDM accumulated an average 9. Subsequently, TDM may be used strategically prior to mathematics sessions to enhance performance. Longer-term studies are required to assess outcome and implementation. You want to do it, but how will you get it done? Purpose: School is an ideal setting to promote and increase physical activity PA in children.
The potential cognitive and academic benefits of PA might increase chances of successful implementation. Methods: Twenty-six face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary school teachers grades 5 and 6 and principals in The Netherlands, and analysed using inductive content analysis. Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence on the effects of PA for academic purposes, and should examine the forms of PA that are both effective as well as feasible in the school setting. Did executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being mediate the effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in ten-year-old children?
Inconsistent findings exist for the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on academic performance. The Active Smarter Kids ASK study revealed a favorable intervention effect of school-based physical activity on academic performance in numeracy in a subsample of year-old elementary schoolchildren performing poorer at baseline in numeracy. An ANCOVA model with latent variable structural equation modeling was estimated using data from children the lower third in academic performance in numeracy at baseline.
The model consisted of the three latent factors as mediators; executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and school related well-being. Our results suggest that the effect of the intervention on performance in numeracy in the present sample is not explained by change in executive function, behavioral self-regulation, or school related well-being. We suggest this finding mainly could be explained by the lack of effect of the intervention on the mediators, which might be due to an insufficient dose of physical activity.
Reviewing peer-to-peer physical activity interventions with youth: interventions, rationales and effects. Introduction: Peer-to-peer approaches have shown positive effects within different areas and settings for the promotion of health and well-being. Such approaches may be particularly relevant in interventions targeting youth, since young people are especially amenable to peer influences. Previous reviews have established effects of peer-to-peer interventions with youth related to e.
However, peer-led interventions with youth have not previously been reviewed with a primary focus on physical activity interventions. Two reviewers screened abstracts. Forty-five studies were selected for in-depth analysis. Results: The review characterises and analyses the diverse range of physical activity-related peer interventions involving youth peer leaders. The study synthesises and discusses intervention characteristics; theoretical approaches; the education, role and influence of peer leaders; and health-related effects on peer leaders and participants.
School- and community-based intervention studies from Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America have been included in the review. Conclusion: The synthesis and analysis provides a knowledge base of rationales, theoretical approaches and types of physical activity interventions, as well as health-related effects on peer leaders and participants. These understandings should be of use for researchers and practitioners working with peer-to-peer approaches in this field.
The 8-week intervention was delivered in three schools and involved participants. Each school recruited girls to become PA-leaders, who received leadership training delivered by undergraduate PA students, who subsequently acted as their intervention mentors and role models. The PA-leaders were encouraged to support their school peers to engage in more PA. Two of the schools provided organised after-school PA opportunities which the PA-leaders actively promoted. The acceptability, practicality, engagement, and perceived success of the intervention was investigated using focus groups and interviews.
Qualitative analysis adopted deductive and inductive methods, using SCT and SDT as thematic frameworks, and then exploring additional emergent themes. Conclusions: This intervention was reported to be feasible and acceptable among mentors and PA-leaders. Teachers were supportive of the intervention and the intervention demonstrates innovation incorporating undergraduate students as mentors and role models to adolescent girls.
Further research is needed to clarify the roles and responsibilities for the PA-leaders. Introduction: Comprehensive school-based physical activity PA interventions exist which are efficacious when tested under research conditions, however they often require adaptation for implementation at scale. Conclusion: Five main modifications were made to scale the intervention, in line with implementation and scale-up frameworks.
Introduction: There is a growing interest in school-based interventions providing additional physical activity outside of physical education. Subsequently, many school based running programmes are being implemented across the UK in a grass roots style movement. However, research on the implementation of these programmes is relatively underdeveloped. Methods: Nine semi-structured focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of 55 pupils 27 girls and 28 boys aged between five and ten years.
Pupils were recruited from five schools in England who had implemented the programme for a minimum of one academic year. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results: Pupils identified a range of organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal barriers and facilitators to participation. Furthermore, schools should evaluate the delivery of the programme, and what impact it is having on pupils, to allow adaptation and tailoring. Development of an agent-based model to explore population patterns and trends of leisure-time physical activity. Introduction: Most of the actions aiming to promote leisure-time physical activity LTPA at population level showed small or null effects.
Approaching the problem from a systems science perspective may shed light on the reasons for these results. We developed an agent-based model to explore how the interaction between psychological attributes and built and social environments leads to the formation and evolution of LTPA patterns in adult populations. The model represents a stylized community containing two types of agents: people and LTPA sites.
People interact with each other proximal network and perceived community and with the built environment LTPA sites over time. Each iteration is equivalent to one week and we assessed a period of 10 years. Results: The model was able to reproduce population temporal trends of intention and LTPA reported in literature. Putting physical activity and sedentary behaviours into context: a systems science perspective for measuring the interplay of multiple lifestyle health behaviours in daily living.
Introduction: Interventions targeting multiple health behaviours may be more effective than interventions targeting only one health behaviour. The purpose of this study is to establish the multidirectional relationships between seven modifiable lifestyle risk factors alcohol use, diet, sleep, stress, physical activity PA , sedentary behaviours SB , and tobacco use by using a systems science perspective. Methods: This study is part of a larger prospective two-site UK and US pilot study on lifestyle cancer risk behaviours.
The study consists of two research laboratory visits and a day data collection period between the visits, during which participants will complete daily diaries on their health behaviours, and they will wear a research-grade accelerometer Actigraph GT9X Link on their wrist to objectively measure PA, SB, and sleep. Results: The results will be analysed to identify the key components of PA and SB systems, to determine how the components are related, what feedback loops operate in the system, what are potential barriers and sources of resistance to change, and to identify potential behavioural outcome delays.
Conclusion: Using a novel systems science perspective on multiple interrelated health behaviours, this study will improve our understanding on how lifestyle health behaviours are interrelated, and how to manage interdependence and potential non-linearity across multiple health behaviours in behavioural change interventions. Participating adolescents egos nominated up to 10 significant others alters. Egos reported alter behaviours e.
Relationships were examined with Spearman rank correlations. Social network analysis was performed in 46 adolescents mean age On average each ego nominated 6. Average degree centrality an indicator of greater ties between alters was 0. Findings suggest that fewer opportunities for face to face interactions may be contributing to increased sedentary time. The findings help identify key social and environmental targets to enhance interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour.
Multivariate analyses of covariance, which controlled for household income, were computed in Stata software Conclusion: Gender differences in PA exist, with boys typically more active than girls. The extent to which parenting practices reinforce this socialization process needs to be further investigated in light of the study findings. PA parenting practices were measured using an expert-developed item bank composed of 3 main domains of parenting practices: control, autonomy support and structure. A questionnaire administered to children assessed PA motivation and three self-determination constructs autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Stata version Play as a context for motor development in preschool children: a compositional analysis. Introduction: Play is suggested as an important context for physical development in preschoolers. However, empirical studies examining associations between fundamental movement skills FMS and play behaviors are lacking.
This study aimed to examine associations between play behaviours during recess and FMS in typically developing preschool children. A compositional data analysis was undertaken to examine associations between these play behaviours and FMS.