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Comments and reviews What are comments? Add a comment. Australian National University. La Trobe University. Viewed as an activity con- the intersection between urban informality fined to developing countries, the informal and the politics of resistance. My objective is or pre-modern sector was defined as eco- to broaden our understanding of the geogra- nomic activities that did not contribute to phies of resistance in cities by recognising the growth of national economies.
The underlying vendors and attention to these differences and assumption was that informal activities had tensions helps us understand how the politics to be pushed into the formal sphere in order of informality unfolds in urban contexts. This for a nation to transition into the modern paper contributes to the literature on the poli- economy, in line with developed nations. Mexico City as a result of the implementa- Drawing from the Chicago School, this tion of regeneration policies. I demonstrate work developed a perspective which saw life that thinking about difference matters to the outside the margins of the state primarily in way in which vendors carried out their resis- relation to housing as a product of the inca- tance strategies and to how the post- pacity of rural migrants to completely regeneration context materialised.
I start the become urbanites, thus living in limbo discussion in the following section with a between the urban—rural and the formal— review of the literature on the politics of informal Alsayyad, 9. Particular informality. I note how conceptualisations focus was placed on Latin America during of people engaged in informal activities have the s and s, where cities in the changed through time and explore the value region were dealing with unprecedented Downloaded from usj.
For example, Roy pro- things, from rural—urban migration. It is vides a fascinating account of the relation- during this time that the urban population ship between informality and the so-called in Latin America almost doubled, leading to formal political-economic structures of soci- extraordinary levels of growth in the per- ety. While her objective is to recalibrate the developed by recent migrants to survive in a geographies of authoritative knowledge context of unemployment and poverty MacLeod and Jones, , she also Portes et al.
A wishes to reconceptualise informality. Informal practices by that was not accounted for by formal politi- the state are not random, atomised actions cal and economic structures of society.
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Arguably, this dualist approach which are calculated and that involve purpo- was a product of a need among academics sive action and planning Roy, At and international organisations to identify, issue is the type of informality considered to define and measure a growing urban activity be legitimate. In the next subsection, I She uses this dis- the informal sector and its relation to the tinction to discuss accepted forms of inform- state.
For example, in the case of street ality in contrast to less desired forms of vending in Latin America, scholars have informality that are increasingly criminalised recognised differences within the activity in by the state. Difference in these terms was valued viduals who engaged in so-called informal as a means for understanding how to best practices, but also homogenised individuals develop policy which would account for the into an undifferentiated group composed wide range of practices exercised on the primarily of working poor.
As stated by streets of Latin American cities. Furthermore, the Because many individuals and groups appreciation for difference reduces the diver- who engage in traditionally identified infor- sity of the activity and the individuals mal activities — such as street vending and engaged in such practices to the type of stall squatting — were mostly marginalised sectors or the product sold, ignoring the juxtaposi- of the urban population, the tendency is to tion of a complex set of political, economic, theorise informality within the confines of social, emotional and cultural processes in class politics.
A politics of difference is lacking in studies There are hierarchical power relations within of urban informality. The Downloaded from usj.
Resistance takes or whether a vendor forms part of an orga- several forms and can be exercised in multi- nisation can hide important differences in ple and simultaneous ways. Indeed, work on the experiences of vendors which can lead to the politics of informality has recognised dif- inappropriate regulatory strategies and poli- ference within the informal sector relative to cies, but also to inappropriate understand- the multiple ways in which informal people ings of street vending as a critical reality practice their agency.
In the process of making sense of the dif- More recently, work on the informal sec- ferent political-democratic realities of post- tor has been motivated by a concern for colonial contexts, Chatterjee looking at the politics of informality within introduces the notion of political society to the context of urban neoliberalism which is describe the sites of power and negotiation targeting groups who do not fit the imagined practiced by marginalised populations when global city.
In an attempt to show instances making claims of rights and recognition to of bottom-up mobilisations, much of this the state. A political society is formed when work argues that those involved in informal a population transitions from being a mere practices are agents who actively participate number in bureaucratic books to a collective in a form of exchange that provides them a political subject.
Hence, in order to be recog- daily income. For Chatterjee, a constraints Crossa, Difference, in political society presents itself as a family, this case, is appreciated as a means for minimising its internal differences in order understanding varying degrees and practices to strengthen the terms and conditions in of resistance. For example, resistance can be which they define their claims in the eyes of practiced through collective forms of orga- the state.
In the construction of an imagined nising Lindell, or, as Bayat community, differences are overlook in argues, resistance can be atomied and order to mobilise support and influence gov- unplanned. Similarly, resistance strategies ernmental policy. MacFarlane and Schindler Resistance can be exercised through scalar have emphasised the need to think beyond practices, which may canal efforts globally fixed categories of formal versus informal Kothari, , or locally.
Resistance can which locate people into particular sets of be an unarticulated way of fighting for redis- unchanged relations. Rather, they offer tribution while remaining autonomous from alternative conceptualisations by looking at Downloaded from usj. This approach highlights how different Mexico City and changing formal and informal relations can help us better understand the dynamic The material I present in this paper is a nature of the politics of informality in the product of empirical research realised city.
He argues in the neighbourhood in Coyoacan. The cen- that framing informality and formality as tral argument of the paper draws mostly practices helps move beyond notions of from the voices of vendors and artisans of informality as geographically or socially cir- Coyoacan.
- Street vendors in Mexico City.
- Informal Politics: Street Vendors and the State in Mexico City.
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This is partly because vendors cumscribed. Informality is not a condition from Coyoacan consistently made reference which belongs to the poor and located only to the experience of vendors in the Historic in marginalised areas of the city as formality Centre, and it thus made sense to look back is not a characteristic of the better off and construct a comparative perspective McFarlane, Similarly, Roy with other parts of the city.
That is, quences on those sectors of the population deregulated actions which typically go facing displacement. As she states, the apparatus of visits during shorter trips to Mexico City. In the state has the power to determine what both cases, the empirical work was qualita- forms of informality will thrive and which tive and entailed open-ended interviews with ones will disappear.
Informal Politics: Street Vendors and the State in Mexico City
While this is certainly street vendors and artisans and semi- the case particularly under neoliberal urban- structured interviews with city and local ism which seeks to eradicate certain forms of authorities. In the Historic Centre I inter- informal practices such as street vending , viewed 20 city officials, 15 project officers in in this paper I argue that legitimation of for- charge of the regeneration project, 20 street mal practices versus the desire to eradicate vendors and 10 local shop owners.
In selective informal activities is not only a dis- Coyoacan my interactions and interviews course re produced by the state, but also a were primarily with vendors and artisans, of narrative enacted by actors involved in so- whom I interviewed 30 vendors and used called informal activities. Indeed, the sorts participant observation to record everyday of politics of difference exercised by the state life changes brought about by the policy.
In the those produced by the state. As I will show Historic Centre, I approached the leaders of in the next section using the case of Mexico organisations of vendors affected by the pol- City, political subjects as defined by icy. The leaders then gave me permission to Chatterjee can also incur a politics of differ- interview vendors. In Coyoacan, those sorts ence, highlighting the differences within the of internal hierarchies were less visible and I group as a way to mobilise and influence directly approached vendors and artisans government policy.
For both cases, the fieldwork consuming alcohol and drugs. The selection was complemented with systematic analyses of these two areas was driven by the fact of newspaper reports and policy documents. It of rescuing public spaces. The Programa de Rescate was first with distinct and divisive organisational and announced in to address what the city resistance strategies. A fundamental part of this involved the removal of thousands of street vendors from Geographies of difference: Historic Centre public spaces. The areas hold Whether the success of the policy important meaning to individuals and endures and the streets of the Historic Centre groups who use the spaces in their daily life.
The politics of resistance among different ven- rhetoric justifying the removal of vendors dors facing displacement was shaped by the and artisans was not linked to a so-called material and symbolic realities of different crisis, as was the case of the Historic Centre.
These differences streets of the Historic Centre to sell their were based not only on the origins of vend- products in return for party support during ing in each area, but also on the type of the s Alba, However, resistance strategies was partly a product of a politics of difference emerged partly as a the nature of the Historic Centre and the result of changing governance structures in role that street vendors have played in shap- Mexico City and its cleansing policies aimed ing the local economy of the area.
Street at beautifying urban public spaces through, vendors engaged in classic resistance tactics among other things, the removal of street which involved taking over streets and pla- vendors. It is the context of exclusion which zas. On occasions these strategies entailed becomes a driving force in the creation of a violent street confrontations with the police politics of difference characterised by a dif- or with vendors from other organisations. But Barrios is a controversial figure. Local media outlets have accused her and her family of making big profits from street vendors.
She was released two years later due to insufficient evidence.
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For decades, the government has attempted to relocate street vendors to indoor public markets, arguing that they make streets dirtier and more dangerous and hinder the formal work economy. But few markets have been built. Those that do exist are in less than ideal locations, away from the streets and city centers where thousands of locals and foreigners come together on a daily basis. Authorized vendors, who pay taxes and have established local businesses, are against moves that support illegal vendors. To the contrary, they want them removed from the bustling streets.
The group works to reduce illegal vendors in all sectors across the city.see url
?Somos Piratas y Qu? Survival and Resistance on the Streets of Mexico City
But Gazal says his activism nearly cost him his life. He says after multiple threats and the kidnapping of his son, he no longer enters the historical city center out of fear of retaliation from illegal vendors. Last year, legal vendors in Guadalajara staged a protest against government corruption, sellers that do not pay taxes and a lack of government oversight and enforcement of laws.
But their calls fell on deaf ears — particularly amongst politicians. The empty response was nothing new for formal vendors, who have come to distrust local government officials.
The meeting was secretly recorded and published in local media, exposing corrupt practice in government. Advocates of formal vending add that the proliferation and lack of regulationof informal vending is partly due to the close relationship between local government officials and informal vending organizations. Barrios, for example, was elected a local deputy by the long-standing Institutional Revolutionary Party, or PRI in