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On Office series by Stephen J. Landrum Ach so! Pfaff Gesammelte Schriften. Kearney Die Skylark und die Sternenwanderer. It is generally accepted that the activities of several American private foundations in Latin America and Asia in the s and s were frequently linked to American geo-political 3 For the views of modernising liberal-pluralists in Indonesia at the time, see.
Bourchier and Hadiz eds. Also see Ford Foundation Not uncommonly, links to the CIA have been credibly alleged. Thus, a modern pro-Western technocracy, together with the military, came to be regarded as essentially the twin pillars of anti-communism in Indonesia. Of course it was useful that some of the clear beneficiaries of New Order policy were ultimately giant US-based companies like the oil concern Caltex, operating in Riau and the mining giant Freeport, operating in Papua.
In the evolution of the New Order, a ruling coalition of interests cemented by Soeharto himself — based upon politico-business families and large corporate conglomerates emerging from the apparatus of the state itself — had earlier taken possession of the state to an astonishingly instrumental degree. This capitalist oligarchy was not only able to wield control over state institutions and to hijack and shape the process of economic liberalisation Robison and Hadiz Perhaps symbolic of the new dispensability of Soeharto was the unambiguous statement by then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright that he should step down in the face of growing popular opposition in May Thus, the Indonesian post-Soeharto experience shows that predatory relations of power can survive the unravelling of an authoritarian regime.
Moreover the demise of such relations of power does not appear to be automatically connected to the outright subjection of Indonesia to forces that might be ex- pected to exert pressure for greater transparency and accountability in governance. For example, foreign businesses that might have been expected to have a vested interest in neo-liberal market reforms attempted to defend the privileges they gained through corrupt deals with the New Order and therefore demonstrated yet again the compatibility of investor interests and predatory politics under certain circumstances.
This was perhaps best illustrated by the case of PLN, the Indonesian state-owned electricity company. Soon after the fall of Soeharto, American business interests, supported personally by the US Ambassador to Jakarta, threatened PLN when its director sought to cancel Soeharto-era contracts e.
Far Eastern Economic Review, 21 October These contracts were widely believed to have been the product of high- level corruption — exactly the kind that Indonesia was supposed to abandon. As Max Weber once observed, there is a key difference between predictable and unpredictable forms of corruption ; It is mainly in response to such unpredictability that a Singapore-based business daily highlighted the possibility of an exodus from Indonesia of fairly long- established international business operations Business Times 20 May The main actors in these contests have predominantly been interests nurtured by the old regime who have been able to reconstitute through new vehicles and alliances Robison and Hadiz Though relatively marginalised since — the military remains a powerful force.
In fact it has been displaying signs of enjoying a comeback of sorts in more recent years after being pressed into a retreat in the immediate post-Soeharto period. Regarded as a loyal protector of Soeharto family interests, he remains embroiled in numerous cases of alleged human rights abuses. The eventual winner of the Presidential race though was General Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono — former chief of political affairs of the armed forces — who somehow graduated from the New Order without a human rights record nearly as blemished as that of many other generals of his seniority.
But the PDI-P — the victor of the first post-Soeharto democratic elections in — is itself no clearly reformist vehicle as well. Like virtually all the major political parties of the post-Soeharto era, it is a vehicle for motley interests that include those incubated in the old New Order as business cronies, generals, political operators and enforcers Hadiz b. It would be an exaggeration, however, to suggest that these results suggest popular support for a highly centralised authoritarian regime Sugianto Tandra No doubt there is a longing — perhaps especially among sections of the urban propertied and middle class — of a time of greater certainty Gazali ; Kurniawan The juxtaposition of order against chaos in much of the domestic discourse bears an uncanny resemblance to the rhetoric of Washington about world politics especially after the events of 11 September Indeed, the stated aims of American power — as expressed by speeches by the likes of George W.
Bush and the writings of others e. Dobriansky — is to make the world safe for democracy, and to ensure the stability required for global economic prosperity based on an internationalised system of global markets. However, it has become increas- ingly the perceived wisdom in Washington that such a system would need to be at least partially sustained by force and coercion, and may require direct strikes against presumed sources of threat e. Schmitt Aware of her vulnerability in relation to organised political Islam in Indonesia — Islamic parties had thwarted her first attempt at the Presidency in — she was very cognisant of the dangers of further alienating Muslim political groups.
According to the journalist Tatik Hafidz , the Megawati government debated internally whether or not Indonesia should take the so-called Musharraf road. In the case of Musharraf, this entailed turning against many of the radical Islamic political groups that his government had helped to cultivate earlier, in relation to previous rounds of domestic political struggles. Hafidz suggests that military intelligence czar General Hendropiyono was the main supporter of taking the Musharraf road, although some of his colleagues were more circumspect. It is perhaps useful to recall that sections of the Indonesian military leadership had sometimes cultivated a relationship with these same groups for domestic political purposes.
In this connection, groups of thugs donning Islamic regalia and symbols like the Front Pembela Islam Islamic 7 This article, originally published in the Los Angeles Times, is found on the website of the Project for the New American Century, in which the author is listed as Executive Director. Indonesian observers like George Aditjondro n. More recently, it has been suggested by the respected weekly Tempo that the reigniting of communal strife in Ambon in early was the work of Kopassus troops Tempo, No.
The irony is that the military is supposed to be the force to hold Indonesia together.
But the military has also been alleged to have an interest in the perpetuation of violence in other Indonesian regions like Aceh Kingsbury and McCulloch Indeed, analysts have long speculated that periodic anti- Chinese rioting and church burnings in the s and s were instigated by at least sections of the military leadership to demonstrate their indispensability to political stability. While recent global and domestic developments may have favoured its resurgence, few would expect the military to be able to dominate Indonesian politics and society as it did during the early years of the New Order in particular.
Indeed the major interest of the military as an institution is arguably to maintain enough influence and power to safeguard access and control over certain economic resources. Thus it needs to find its niche within the post-Soeharto reorganisation of power rather than overturn it. The military, for example, has long been in control of a range of companies and foundations that provide extra-budgetary revenue — and extra income for officers Mohammad and Pamuntjak ; ICG It is also believed to be involved in organised crime activity — with interests in gun-running, drug dealing, prostitution, illegal gambling, and extortion rackets Kingsbury and McCulloch It is perhaps useful to recall that the national budget reportedly only a quarter of the financial needs of the military.
Democracy Special Collection
This territorial structure allows local military com- manders the opportunity to enter into local political and business alliances. In the current context of decentralisation of fiscal and administrative governance, it is conceivable that some local military commanders are finding that such alliances are more lucrative than ever Mietzner But the international rehabilitation of the Indonesian military has met with hitches. The shadow of the post-referendum military-sponsored mur- derous frenzy in East Timor still looms large in the background.
Although the United States has committed financial assistance to the Indonesian security forces in order to combat terrorism Carothers , American military aid remains severely restricted, and Indonesia remains banned from the so-called IMET International Military Education and Training programme, mainly be- cause of the unresolved murders of the American school teachers in Papua. Nevertheless, democracy activists do have cause for concern.
Exploiting recent domestic and global developments, the military has been instrumental in the establishment of martial law in Aceh, as well as the all out quest for a military solution to the deeply-rooted troubles of the province. Most disturbingly, the military tried, unsuccessfully, to put forward a law that would have effectively placed it in a commanding position in times of national emergency Jones These fears have been exacerbated by new anti-terror legislation that human rights activists fear will be abused.
Prior to this there were already fears of a return to the security state after the arrest of some student activists in Java and of pro- independence Acehnese activists, on the basis of the Indonesian Criminal Code Jones Chevy Chase often did pratfalls on Saturday Night Live , imitating Ford, who had been seen stumbling on two occasions during his term. As Chase commented, "He even mentioned in his own autobiography it had an effect over a period of time that affected the election to some degree.
Ford's election campaign benefitted from his being an incumbent president during several anniversary events held during the period leading up to the United States Bicentennial. The Washington, D. The th anniversary of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts gave Ford the opportunity to deliver a speech to , in Concord acknowledging the need for a strong national defense tempered with a plea for "reconciliation, not recrimination" and "reconstruction, not rancor" between the United States and those who would pose "threats to peace".
Democratic nominee and former Georgia governor Jimmy Carter campaigned as an outsider and reformer, gaining support from voters dismayed by the Watergate scandal and Nixon pardon. After the Democratic National Convention, he held a huge point lead over Ford in the polls. However, as the campaign continued, the race tightened, and, by election day, the polls showed the race as too close to call. There were three main events in the fall campaign. Most importantly, Carter repeated a promise of a "blanket pardon" for Christian and other religious refugees, and also all Vietnam War draft dodgers Ford had only issued a conditional amnesty in response to a question on the subject posed by a reporter during the presidential debates, an act which froze Ford's poll numbers in Ohio, Wisconsin, Hawaii, and Mississippi.
Ford had needed to shift just 11, votes in Ohio plus one of the other three in order to win. It was the first act signed by Carter, on January 20, Earlier, Playboy magazine had published a controversial interview with Carter; in the interview Carter admitted to having "lusted in my heart" for women other than his wife, which cut into his support among women and evangelical Christians. Also, on September 24, Ford performed well in what was the first televised presidential debate since Polls taken after the debate showed that most viewers felt that Ford was the winner.
Carter was also hurt by Ford's charges that he lacked the necessary experience to be an effective national leader, and that Carter was vague on many issues. Televised presidential debates were reintroduced for the first time since the election. As such, Ford became the first incumbent president to participate in one.
Carter later attributed his victory in the election to the debates, saying they "gave the viewers reason to think that Jimmy Carter had something to offer". The turning point came in the second debate when Ford blundered by stating, "There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford Administration.
However, the phrasing was so awkward that questioner Max Frankel was visibly incredulous at the response. In the end, Carter won the election, receiving The Nixon pardon controversy eventually subsided. Ford's successor, Jimmy Carter, opened his inaugural address by praising the outgoing President, saying, "For myself and for our Nation, I want to thank my predecessor for all he has done to heal our land. Ford successfully invested in oil with Marvin Davis , which later provided an income for Ford's children. He continued to make appearances at events of historical and ceremonial significance to the nation, such as presidential inaugurals and memorial services.
In January , he became the president of Eisenhower Fellowships in Philadelphia , then served as the chairman of its board of trustees from to Naughton, a New York Times journalist who was given the assignment to write the former President's advance obituary, an article that would be updated prior to its eventual publication. A review in Foreign Affairs described it as, "Serene, unruffled, unpretentious, like the author. This is the shortest and most honest of recent presidential memoirs, but there are no surprises, no deep probings of motives or events.
No more here than meets the eye. During the term of office of his successor, Jimmy Carter, Ford received monthly briefs by President Carter's senior staff on international and domestic issues, and was always invited to lunch at the White House whenever he was in Washington, D. Their close friendship developed after Carter had left office, with the catalyst being their trip together to the funeral of Anwar el-Sadat in Like Presidents Carter, George H.
Bush , and Bill Clinton , Ford was an honorary co-chair of the Council for Excellence in Government, a group dedicated to excellence in government performance, which provides leadership training to top federal employees. He also devoted much time to his love of golf, often playing both privately and in public events with comedian Bob Hope , a longtime friend. In , Ford established the Gerald R.
In April , he opened the Gerald R. Ford Museum in Grand Rapids. Ford considered a run for the Republican nomination in , forgoing numerous opportunities to serve on corporate boards to keep his options open for a rematch with Carter. Many have argued that Ford also wanted to exorcise his image as an "Accidental President" and to win a term in his own right.
Ford also believed the more conservative Ronald Reagan would be unable to defeat Carter and would hand the incumbent a second term. On March 15, , Ford announced that he would forgo a run for the Republican nomination, vowing to support the eventual nominee. After securing the Republican nomination in , Ronald Reagan considered his former rival Ford as a potential vice-presidential running mate, but negotiations between the Reagan and Ford camps at the Republican National Convention were unsuccessful. Ford conditioned his acceptance on Reagan's agreement to an unprecedented "co-presidency",  giving Ford the power to control key executive branch appointments such as Kissinger as Secretary of State and Alan Greenspan as Treasury Secretary.
After rejecting these terms, Reagan offered the vice-presidential nomination instead to George H. Nixon had stayed in the background during this campaign. It would have been much more beneficial to Ronald Reagan. On October 3, , Ford cast blame on Carter for the latter's charges of ineffectiveness on the part of the Federal Reserve Board due to his appointing of most of its members: "President Carter, when the going gets tough, will do anything to save his own political skin. This latest action by the president is cowardly.
Following the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan , Ford told reporters while appearing at a fundraiser for Thomas Kean that criminals who use firearms should get the death penalty in the event someone is injured with the weapon. In September , Ford advised Reagan against succumbing to Wall Street demands and follow his own agenda for the economic policies of the US during an appearance on Good Morning America : "He shouldn't let the gurus of Wall Street decide what the economic future of this country is going to be. They are wrong in my opinion. On March 24, , Ford offered an endorsement of President Reagan's economic policies while also stating the possibility of Reagan being met with a stalemate by Congress if not willing to compromise while in Washington.
He was also awarded an honorary doctorate at Central Connecticut State University  on March 23, During an August fundraising reception, Ford stated his opposition to a constitution amendment requiring the US to have a balanced budget, citing a need to elect "members of the House and Senate who will immediately when Congress convenes act more responsibly in fiscal matters. In Ford's Humor and the Presidency , a book of humorous political anecdotes, was published.
Eisenhower , where the two unveiled a plaque with the signatures of each living former president. House of Representatives , along with Carter and Reagan, in support of the assault weapons ban. At the Republican National Convention , Ford compared the election cycle to his loss to Carter and urged attention be paid to electing a Republican Congress: "If it's change you want on Nov. Congress, as every school child knows, has the power of the purse. For nearly 40 years, Democratic majorities have held to the time-tested New Deal formula, tax and tax, spend and spend, elect and elect.
On January 20, , during an interview at his Palm Springs home, Ford said the Republican Party's nominee in the presidential election would lose if very conservative in their ideals: "If we get way over on the hard right of the political spectrum, we will not elect a Republican President. I worry about the party going down this ultra-conservative line. We ought to learn from the Democrats: when they were running ultra-liberal candidates, they didn't win. In the prelude to the impeachment of President Clinton, Ford conferred with former President Carter and the two agreed to not speak publicly on the controversy, a pact broken by Carter when answering a question from a student at Emory University.
In October , Ford broke with conservative members of the Republican Party by stating that gay and lesbian couples "ought to be treated equally. Ford, dedicated to making sexual orientation a non-issue in the Republican Party". In a pre-recorded embargoed interview with Bob Woodward of The Washington Post in July , Ford stated that he disagreed "very strongly" with the Bush administration's choice of Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction as justification for its decision to invade Iraq , calling it a "big mistake" unrelated to the national security of the United States and indicating that he would not have gone to war had he been President.
The details of the interview were not released until after Ford's death, as he requested. On April 4, , Ford was admitted to Eisenhower Medical Center for surgery to replace his left knee, orthopedic surgeon Dr. Robert Murphy saying "Ford's entire left knee was replaced with an artificial joint, including portions of the adjacent femur, or thigh bone, and tibia, or leg bone. Ford suffered two minor strokes at the Republican National Convention , but made a quick recovery after being admitted to Hahnemann University Hospital.here
Bush visited Ford at his home in Rancho Mirage for a little over an hour. This was Ford's last public appearance and produced the last known public photos, video footage, and voice recording. While vacationing in Vail, Colorado , Ford was hospitalized for two days in July for shortness of breath. On August 21, it was reported that he had been fitted with a pacemaker. On August 25, he underwent an angioplasty procedure at the Mayo Clinic. On August 28, Ford was released from the hospital and returned with his wife Betty to their California home.
On October 13, he was scheduled to attend the dedication of a building of his namesake, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan, but due to poor health and on the advice of his doctors he did not attend. The previous day, Ford had entered the Eisenhower Medical Center for undisclosed tests; he was released on October Ford died on December 26, , at his home in Rancho Mirage, California , of arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease and diffuse arteriosclerosis.
He had end-stage coronary artery disease and severe aortic stenosis and insufficiency, caused by calcific alteration of one of his heart valves. Ford died on the 34th anniversary of President Harry S. Truman 's death; he was the last surviving member of the Warren Commission. On December 30, , Ford became the 11th U. President to lie in state in the Rotunda of the U. Scouting was so important to Ford that his family asked for Scouts to participate in his funeral. A few selected Scouts served as ushers inside the National Cathedral. About Eagle Scouts were part of the funeral procession, where they formed an honor guard as the casket went by in front of the museum.
Ford selected the song to be played during his funeral procession at the U.
Ford Airport in Grand Rapids, Michigan. It was unveiled on May 3, in the Capitol Rotunda. On the proper right side is inscribed a quotation from a tribute by Tip O'Neill , Speaker of the House at the end of Ford's presidency: "God has been good to America, especially during difficult times. At the time of the Civil War, he gave us Abraham Lincoln. And at the time of Watergate, he gave us Gerald Ford—the right man at the right time who was able to put our nation back together again.
Our great republic is a government of laws and not of men. Here the people rule. Ford's wife, Betty Ford, died on July 8, On November 12, , Ford surpassed the 93 years and days lifespan of Ronald Reagan, who died on June 5, He marked the occasion with the following statement his last public statement :. The length of one's days matters less than the love of one's family and friends. I thank God for the gift of every sunrise and, even more, for all the years He has blessed me with Betty and the children; with our extended family and the friends of a lifetime.
That includes countless Americans who, in recent months, have remembered me in their prayers. Your kindness touches me deeply. May God bless you all and may God bless America. At the time of his death on December 26, , he was the longest-lived president in American history, having lived 93 years and days.
Bush , who lived 94 years and days. Ford was the only person to hold the presidential office without being elected as either president or vice president. The choice of Ford to fulfill Spiro Agnew 's vacated role as vice president was based on Ford's reputation for openness and honesty. Ford to make a dishonest statement nor a statement part-true and part-false. He never attempted to shade a statement, and I never heard him utter an unkind word," said Martha Griffiths. The trust the American people had in him was rapidly and severely tarnished by his pardon of Nixon. In spite of his athletic record and remarkable career accomplishments, Ford acquired a reputation as a clumsy, likable, and simple-minded Everyman.
An incident in , when he tripped while exiting Air Force One in Austria, was famously and repeatedly parodied by Chevy Chase , cementing Ford's image as a klutz. Ford was initiated into Freemasonry on September 30, But I had no idea that I would ever be added to the company of the Father of our Country and 12 other members of the order who also served as Presidents of the United States. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Ford its Lone Sailor Award for his naval service and his subsequent government service.
Early life. College and law school. Naval Reserve. Marriage and children. House of Representatives — Vice presidency — Presidency — Post-presidency — Death and legacy. Civic and fraternal organizations. See also. Share Share. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the 38th U. For other uses, see Gerald Ford disambiguation.
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Betty Bloomer m. Brooks Pat Buchanan William F. Buckley Jr. James Burnham George H. Bush George W. Think tanks. Other organizations. Variants and movements. Bibliography American nationalism Libertarianism List. Main article: Presidency of Gerald Ford.